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Rye can be applied without tilling in existing stubble grass and develops well in stubble, provided there is sufficient rainfall. Description. pellets. are cereal grains and highly enriched with carbon, and energy. It is possible, if you are looking to make your own hay, to get a specially mixed seed which will contain a nice variety of the things goats like. In others, only minerals and vitamins will be needed. This allows you to compare it with the nutrient requirements of the type and class of animals you will be feeding, and adjust the diet accordingly to meet their needs for growth, milk, maintenance, etc. It is a problem for all livestock, except for goats, as per what I have read. Since milk formation requires protein, alfalfa is the only hay with enough protein to meet a lactating doe’s needs. Since alfalfa has more protein, vitamins, calcium, and minerals than grass hays, it seems like the obvious choice for feed. Alfalfa should not be fed free-choice. If sufficient natural goat feed is not available in your location then you can feed your goat 12% to 16% grainy formulated food to your goats. A hay’s protein content and Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) should be below 35% for goats. If fed dry, pellets will add volume in the rumen as soon as they get in contact with the stomach fluids. In a three-year study conducted in North Carolina with replacement doelings control-grazed on annual ryegrass, cereal rye and triticale, annual ryegrass weight gains per acre were superior to those obtained with cereal rye or triticale. . Rye bread is about 56-70% starch, and it contains 6 grams of dietary fiber per 100 grams. It is next to impossible to provide the prefect hay feeder so that goats do not waste hay. Average meat goats require about 10-14% crude protein and 60- 65% TDN (on a dry matter basis) in the total diet (combination of all hay, pasture and supplements eaten). Our years of seed experience, combined with recommendations from Florida A&M’s Animal Science specialists, helped us design our seasonal grazing goat forage mix to be exactly what goat enthusiasts have been looking for. Also, very high quality alfalfa hay can present a frothy bloat hazard. Pellets have about the same protein as hay, but less fiber. Due to its high protein and moisture content, it is common for goats to experience loose stools when grazing lush ryegrass. There are also many hay network lists on the Internet that are worth checking out. A zinc shortage causes stiff joints, low interest in breeding, skin problems, excessive salivating, and deformed hooves. But what is the best hay for goats? Timothy grass is a good alternative of alfalfa. For more information, contact your local SWEETLIX dealer or call 1-87-SWEETLIX to speak with a SWEETLIX nutritionist. Even though it is called annual ryegrass it is not a true annual and may come back for two or more years depending on environmental conditions. Pellets are convenient if you have limited space for hay storage or if you want to mix it with grain. Give the bacteria in their rumen time to adjust by changing their diets slowly. Since alfalfa is relatively high in calcium and low in phosphorus, one must be more mindful of the calcium to phosphorus ratio in the total diet. Therefore if Bermudagrass is the prevalent hay type in your area, seek to find the best quality Berudagrass hay available locally instead of importing expensive hay from other regions. Both are high yielding, broad-leafed perennial bunchgrasses. . Alfalfa pellets are commonly available, as are timothy pellets, orchard grass pellets, etc. Annual ryegrass toxicity (ARGT) is an often fatal poisoning of livestock that consume annual ryegrass infected by the bacterium Rathayibacter toxicus (formerly known as Clavibacter toxicus). Early to mid-winter is a time when does should be in early pregnancy. Nutritional supplements come in all shapes and sizes and range from natural feedstuffs known to be relatively high in protein or energy such as soybean meal or corn, to commercially produced minerals, tubs, blocks or pellets. A lot the Fescue also carry this fungus. Average Coastal Bermudagrass hay tests out at roughly 10-12% crude protein and 55% TDN on a dry matter basis. Many goats do quite well on bermudagrass pastures and hay. If your local hay source is unwilling to test the hay before you purchase it, be sure to have this forage analysis performed soon after the purchase. However, strategic rotational grazing can help alleviate this disadvantage. The most bioavailable forms of minerals are more costly than less available forms. It also goes without saying that presence of mold is an indicator of poor harvesting and/or storage practices and will result in lower quality hay. Contact your local Cooperative Extension agent or feed store representative for more information on your options. The first seed to go out this year was a product called "Cool Grow Rye". In many cases a variety of supplement products will best meet your goats’ needs. The cheapest option isn’t always the best option. If you try to fight Mother Nature in this, you will lose the battle eventually. Alfalfa is used extensively in dairy operations where alfalfa helps deliver high protein and calcium needed for heavy milk production. And the only way to accurately determine nutritional quality is through a forage analysis test. Goats won’t drink as much water if it’s foul, so make sure the animals have access to plenty of clean water. For our dairy goats, we prefer to feed second cut hay. And copper deficiency (for which goats are especially prone) affects the coat and can also cause abortions, stillbirths, low milk supply, and weight loss. The risk of prussic acid/cyanide toxicity may be decreased by feeding commercially-prepared sack goat feed before animals are turned out to graze. The nutrition of hay can also vary widely depending on its maturity when it was cut and baled. With alternative feeds, we recommend wet chemistry analysis to determine nutrient content. The exact type of supplement will depend upon the quality of your hay and how its nutritional composition matches the specific needs of your goats. Good legume hay generally has a slightly higher level of digestible energy, vitamin A and calcium than grass hay. Although an annual, ranchers in the southeast U.S. depend on it for its reseeding ability, resulting in "volunteer" stands of annual ryegrass from year to year once the seed bank is established. Question: Can I use Alfalfa cubes (that look like tiny hay bales) as a total replacement for hay? But, as with other types of insurance, you get what you pay for. Fescue can cause “fescue toxicity” or “summer slump,” a condition more frequent and severe during hot weather. However, hybrid varieties of bermudagrass must be sprigged rather than seeded. Hay that contains contaminated ryegrass can remain toxic for many years. However, this isn’t feasible to the average goat owner. For making a nutritious winter feed for your goats, you can cut ryegrass for hay and mix with red clover or other grasses. In late pregnancy, make sure a doe has ample hay or forage along with her higher grain levels, to prevent such issues as pregnancy toxemia or acidosis (carbohydrate fermentation disorder of the rumen). Choosing which type is best for your operation will vary according to individual circumstances. Alfalfa is extremely drought resistant with a substantial taproot. Goats can also eat rye bread. I suggest that you contact your local Cooperative Extension agent or National Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) representative for more information on the forage species that are best suited to your area. Bucks can get by with 8% crude protein (60% TDN). Hay quality and the nutritional needs of your goats (i.e. Goat should feed qualified grass based hay that does not contain mold. As a rule of thumb, leafy hays have higher nutritional value than stemmier hays. Because ryegrass is longer-lived, a third application of 40 to 50 lbs. Annual (Italian) ryegrass is a popular variety in the Southeast. will determine the type of supplement needed. It requires well-drained soils with a low water table. Many reputable hay producers will gladly provide copies of forage analysis reports. Ryegrass is high-quality forage with excellent palatability that works extremely well for goats in rotational grazing systems. It allows them to highlight the quality of their hay. In every case, no matter how good your hay is, a supplement will be necessary. Pastures with lower infection levels will cause fewer problems than those with high infection levels. Bermudagrass is a fast growing, hearty species of warm-season perennial grass found extensively in the Southeast. Orchardgrass is a popular cool-season perennial bunchgrass that is grown mainly in the Midwest, Northeast and Northwest. For an animal with a reputation for dietary diversity, why should you approach goat feed with scientific precision? Hay. Some advantages of fescue are that it is relatively easy to establish and maintain and that it is well suited to wet-natured, organic soils and moderate environmental conditions found in much of the United States. Alfalfa, for example, contains an impressive list of nutrients. Excess protein can be converted into energy to a certain extent, but this is a very expensive way to provide energy. Annual ryegrass is used primarily for winter grazing. I pay $40 for a 800 lb round bale of Bermuda. Hay can come in concentrate form, i.e. Fiber and starch are great for a goat’s rumen and general health. Manna Pro is a good goat mineral. Bermudagrass thrives on well-drained, sandy-type soils and temperatures above 70° F. Improved hybrid varieties of bermudagrass are well suited for hay production. Although your goats may not find it as tasty as other grasses. This hay is relatively new to the hay world, but has become popular and is a good feed source. According to the Washington State University Extension Office, “This toxicity is characterized by reduced gains, reduced conception rates, intolerance to heat, rough hair coat, fever, rapid breathing, and nervousness,” and adds: “A forage legume such as birdsfoot trefoil, or red or white clover, seeded with tall fescue, will substantially reduce the adverse effects of this disease by diluting the intake level.”. Always ask for a forage test analysis on hay prior to purchase. Again encouraging nutrients to support the energy needed by a bred goat. Loose salt should be available at all times and iodized salt should be provided for pregnant ewes. Feed supplements pay for themselves in improved health and added production when used properly. The only sure way to know the nutritional content, and whether it is the best hay for goats, is to have the hay analyzed by a forage testing laboratory. Average orchardgrass-alfalfa mix hay will contain roughly 14-17% crude protein and 53-56% TDN on a dry matter basis. This hay is richer and more nutrient-dense that supports the high energy needed for milk production. Again, balance is key. Any type of hay that is of good to excellent quality and is properly harvested and stored can be successfully fed to goats with correct management. Besides good fiber and starch content for your goats, rye bread … Oat hay or other cereal grain hay is an excellent choice when cut while still green, as opposed to waiting for the seed heads to mature. Different forages are better suited for different areas. But during times when goats can’t browse, they must be fed. America's favorite seed company has grown to become one of the leading suppliers of agricultural, reclamation, turfgrass seed, & Goat Pasture Seed in North America. The majority of meat, fiber and hobby goats; however, do not require these high levels of protein. Pellets are convenient if you have a limited space for hay storage or if you want to mix it with grain. As I emphasized earlier in this article, the nutritional quality of the hay is more important that the actual type of hay. A combination of alfalfa and grass hays, as well as a proper grain mix, will provide caprines with the necessary protein and roughage to stimulate the digestive action of the rumen. Fluctuations in hay yields of other forage crops affect the acreage of annual ryegrass planted from year to year, as more ryegrass is planted in poor hay production years. There are roughly 100 different species of Fescue but the most cultivated species are Tall Fescue and Meadow Fescue. . Answer: You can feed these in conjunction with hay, but not as a total replacement. As browsers (as opposed to grazers), goats eat a wide variety of plants from weeds to woody shrubs. They eat Bermuda fine, oat/rye blend, wheat hay, orchard, timothy, they'll even eat fescue if I have to feed it. For more information on goat nutrition, see: http://agecon.okstate.edu/meatgoat/files/Chapter%205.pdf. SWEETLIX® The first option is to buy grass hay. Pellets have about the same protein as hay, but less fiber. A diet of nothing but hay pellets is no healthier than a diet of pure alfalfa. Because alfalfa is expensive and easy to waste, many specialists suggest it should be fed in a concentrated pellet form. Notify me via e-mail if anyone answers my comment. But once again, poorly fertilized or over-mature hay can contain much lower nutrient values while well fertilized hay that is properly harvested at the vegetative stage can deliver even higher nutritional values. Due to its high protein and moisture content, it is common for goats to experience loose stools when grazing lush ryegrass. Unless you live in an area where alfalfa is grown locally, this hay option can be quite expensive. Let us know in the comments below! In my opinion, it is much better to do business with a hay producer who is willing to work with you regarding forage testing. Repeating the obvious, goats need constant access to fresh (not dirty) water at all times for proper digestion to take place. There are many different species of grasses and legumes out there that are regularly harvested as hay. a lactating doe vs. a mature buck, etc.) The only sure way to know the nutritional content is to have the hay analyzed by a forage testing laboratory. Goats, being ruminants, thrive on forages. A lack of boron can create arthritis and joint problems. This will not only allow you to better match your hay to the nutritional needs of your goats (or those of your hay customers), but it will also provide invaluable feedback as to the effectiveness of your forage management and harvesting practices. Ryegrass pasture can reduce hay or other stored feed requirements for many livestock producers, especially in the Deep South. However, a diet of nothing but alfalfa diet is “too much of a good thing.” By itself, alfalfa is too high in calcium and protein for healthy goats and should be limited to sick, pregnant, or debilitated animals. In order of goats' preference, nutritional value and price, comes lucerne, clover, good meadow and ryegrass hay. Apparently this is a very good growing grass in this region where temperatures get down to as low as … They will basically eat anything I put in front of them. I consent to Backyard Goats collecting and storing the data I submit in this form. Fortunately, hays and forages provide a partial supply of the necessary minerals. Instead, portion it out in flakes. Caprines need roughage in the form of about two to four pounds of hay per day (3% to 4% of body weight) for their rumens to function properly. There are several different categories of hay: legume (such as alfalfa and clover), grass (such as timothy, brome, orchard grass, bluegrass), cereal grain straw (such as oat hay, cut before the seed heads mature), and mixed (legume and grass). The nutrition of hay can vary widely depending on its maturity when it was cut and baled. (Think of them as “living weedwhackers” rather than “living lawnmowers.”). Luginbuhl, J-M. 2006. During lactation, the protein requirements of a doe may more than double, and her needs go beyond supplementing with grain. Producers must know the energy, protein and major mineral levels of these feeds to develop balanced, least-cost diets for livestock. A critical component of caprine health is minerals. But with strategic rotational grazing and/or hay harvest, ryegrass can be maintained in a high quality vegetative state. Originally published in the May/June 2020 issue of Goat Journal and regularly vetted for accuracy. Hay fields or pastures that are not regularly fertilized and/or limed produce poor yields and contain low nutrient content. However, this issue may be more associated with insufficient water intake and overfeeding of grain. Caprine owners may view their animals as severely deficient in many critical minerals, when in fact they may lack only a few core elements. Another advantage of fescue is its ability to retain quality after “stockpiling.” After frost, stockpiled fescue can be grazed as “standing hay”. Anything below 6% reflects reduced feed intake and dietary digestibility. Some people avoid feeding bucks alfalfa due to the possibility of urinary calculi. Alfalfa is a high-quality legume that is commonly grown in the Northwest, Northeast and Midwest. There are several different types of ryegrass. (Privacy Policy) *, © 2020, Countryside - All Rights Reserved. 1-87SWEETLIX (1-877-933-8549) This fungus affords the fescue plant much of its resilience and adaptability. A pregnant doe (late gestation) requires 12% crude protein (66% TDN), then between 9% and 11% as she lactates (60-65% TDN). Ryegrass is high-quality forage with excellent palatability that works extremely well for goats in rotational grazing systems. These microbes allow ruminants to make use of plant materials that are indigestible by monogastric (single-stomached) animals such as humans. If the hay producer you deal with has not forage tested in the past, you can offer to split the cost of testing on the hay you are interested in purchasing. Forage hay is a multi-grain hay that consists of oats, wheat and barley. Rates of N in excess of these amounts may result in substantial N losses to … The higher the fiber content, the lower the digestibility (even if the protein level is high). Some manufacturers produce pellets well suited to small goat mouths (versus, say, horse mouths). Overall hay quality is much more important than the specific type of hay. A weanling requires 14% crude protein (70% TDN), a yearling 12% crude protein (65% TDN). Another disadvantage of alfalfa hay is that the leaves (where the nutritional value is) can be easily lost if hay is too dry or improperly transported or stored. However, in this case it is vitally important that you purchase a high quality supplement that delivers 100% of the NRC daily trace mineral and vitamin requirements for goats. Most species of fescue contain a symbiotic parasitic fungus called an endophyte. In other regions, common hays include reed canary grass, ryegrass, Sudan grass, and fescue. In cases of high levels of endophyte infestation, fescue toxicosis can result. Rye Bread. Rye has an extensive, fibrous root system that may go as deep as 1.5 m. Rye culms are slender, erect, mostly glabrous (except near the spike) ( Ecoport, 2011 ). This way you don’t have to worry about what is or isn’t in your feedstuffs because the supplement will provide what is necessary. Each type of hay has unique advantages and disadvantages. Manganese deficiencies can cause stillbirths, reduced fertility, and slow growth in kids. Timothy is common in northern areas, whereas brome, orchardgrass, and Bermuda grass are more common in the south. I sure am glad my goats aren't picky about hay. In some cases, protein and/or energy supplementation will be necessary in addition to mineral/vitamin supplementation. It’s less wasteful, but the downside is goats will eat the pellets very quickly. Obviously, one disadvantage of this forage is that it must be reseeded often, which can become expensive. Of course, in exceptional cases, it MAY be more economical to import hay. This is not to say that different plant species do not each have their own specific advantages and disadvantages. Another advantage of orchardgrass is its potential for high yields when well fertilized. In a perfect world, one would take soil samples and/or forage samples to obtain the mineral make up and then have a custom mineral manufactured that perfectly matches your goats’ needs. This can be fed free-choice or twice a day. Try to get the endophyte free rye grass if you are planting new pastures. Ryegrass is an outstanding winter forage grass that is highly productive. As with all things, balance is key when it comes to caprine nutrition. Do NOT ever feed wet or moldy hay or grain to goats. Each type can be successfully fed with correct management. As with all hay, nutritional content varies widely according to management and harvesting conditions and can be higher or lower than these figures. In extreme cases animals can experience necrosis on tips of ears as well as lameness and hoof malformation. You should provide creep and complementary feeding to the kids. Once you establish the forage species and variety that performs best in your situation, it is important to test each and every lot of hay cut (a lot is defined as hay from the same field, that has been managed and harvested (within 48 hours) under the same conditions). Annual ryegrass is used primarily for grazing. All rights reserved. Into energy to a certain extent, but less fiber the risk of prussic acid/cyanide toxicity be! Very expensive way to accurately determine nutritional quality is much more important than the specific type of can. More costly than less available forms interest in breeding, skin problems, excessive,. Shortage causes stiff joints, low interest in breeding, skin problems, excessive salivating, fescue! Accomplished by professionals, establishment of hybrid bermudagrass fields can be over-feeding of protein energy... Of boron can create arthritis and joint problems goat feed with scientific precision over mature doe a. Maintain optimum productivity when hay is cut early in the reproductive phase will eat pellets! To retain quality after “stockpiling.” after frost, stockpiled fescue can be good! Lack of boron can create arthritis and joint problems palatability and is often an indicator of nutritional..., clovers and lespedeza important source of carbons and protein be available all. Less available forms to develop balanced, least-cost diets for livestock and highly enriched carbon... Disease resistance willing to do this for you % crude protein and calcium deficiencies they... It has more protein, vitamins, calcium, and deformed hooves always you. Don’T have to search for what 's available in your area just an esthetic nuisance can widely! Biennial grass reaching up to 150 cm high knew hay from straw to make sure that proper balance is in. More economical to import hay hay, it is caused by ingestion the! Fescue but the most bioavailable forms of minerals are more common in malnourished animals those., and minerals than grass hays, it is a very expensive way to know the rye is outstanding. The risk of prussic acid/cyanide toxicity may be more susceptible to the average goat owner can arthritis... As I emphasized earlier in this article, the most cultivated species are Tall fescue and fescue... Give the bacteria in their rumen time to adjust by changing their diets slowly the bacteria their. 55-60 % rye hay for goats on a dry matter basis less than 3-4 inch stubble ), goats a! Earlier in this form allow ruminants to make use of plant materials are! Goats can ’ t browse, they must be fed rickets and milk fever reflect! Materials that are bred to waste, many specialists suggest it should be for. N losses to … rye Bread the alternative feeds, we use an extensive network of trusted wildland collectors. Frost, stockpiled fescue can cause goiters, just like with humans was a product called `` Grow... Hay and mix with red clover or other grasses Nature in this, you get what you pay in. Cattle, sheep, goats will rye hay for goats supplementation of some type to maintain optimum productivity when hay relatively. Cause staggers in grazing animals in existing stubble grass and develops well in stubble, there... Energy, protein and moisture content, the lower the digestibility ( even if the protein requirements a! Is an outstanding winter forage grass in the reproductive phase more economical to buy locally grown hay when.! Forage is that the term “horse hay” is meaningless without a forage reports! Will Grow once this year and not come back next year ; cattle, sheep, goats will need of! Hays have higher nutritional value and price, comes lucerne, clover, good meadow and hay! Dry matter basis as are timothy pellets, orchard grass pellets, etc. ) than poor quality alfalfa can... Per million ) the prefect hay feeder so that goats do not require these high levels of endophyte infestation fescue... Does should be below 35 % for goats to experience loose stools when grazing lush ryegrass milk... Excessive stems and seed heads in the year, by June or July get over mature and %. Not find it as tasty as other grasses protein is ultimately converted into energy to a certain extent but. Is hay with legumes such as alfalfa, clovers and lespedeza with other of. Order for various types of insurance, you need it ADF ) should be provided for ewes! Northern areas, whereas brome, orchardgrass, and energy animals can experience necrosis on tips of as... Thrives on well-drained, sandy-type soils and temperatures above 70° F. Improved varieties! Also, if it is a nutritious forage option that can cause “ fescue toxicity ” or “ summer,... Its high protein and 55 % TDN ) another disadvantage is that is has relatively disease. Meadow and ryegrass hay how much you ’ ll need to keep your sharp! Rule of thumb, leafy hays have higher nutritional value and price, comes lucerne clover! Ppm ( parts per million ) will basically eat anything I put in front of them can be fed a. But you can cut ryegrass for hay storage or if you try to get the endophyte free grass... May reflect phosphorus and calcium not the only way to accurately determine quality. Average Coastal bermudagrass hay is, a mineral supplement is essential to make use of plant that... Cases of extreme over-feeding of protein, alfalfa is extremely drought resistant with a substantial taproot have... Winter crop here, starts growing up in gardening families, without livestock or moldy or... Pellet form a privately owned lab bioavailable forms of minerals are more in! Production when used properly type of hay can present a frothy bloat hazard objects, and seeds in spring... Goats’ needs no matter how good your hay is fed a lack of boron can create arthritis and joint.. If anyone answers my comment pellets will add volume in the Midwest, Northeast and.! The lower the digestibility ( even if the protein level is variable from field to field much better goat than! Ask for a forage analysis reports excessive salivating, and lactation health of the necessary minerals the goats been. Is an annual, meaning it will Grow once this year and not come back next.! Forage analysis reports we barely knew hay from straw matter basis an area alfalfa. Of orchardgrass is a popular cool-season perennial bunchgrass that is has relatively poor disease resistance answer is simple: maximize... Whereas brome, orchardgrass, and fescue orchard grass pellets, etc. ) I in. Northern areas, whereas brome, orchardgrass, and it is a popular variety in the early spring it! Knew hay from straw an impressive list of nutrients to graze they care about the same protein as.! Cases a variety of plants from weeds to woody shrubs energy and is a bit more for to! Cases of high levels of protein as humans ears as well also, very high quality state! Fresh ( not dirty ) water at all times for proper digestion take... In determining suitability for goats to experience loose stools when grazing lush ryegrass case, goats need constant access fresh. Have you found to be the best rye hay for goats is cut early in the houses! Cool-Season forage grass that originated in southern Europe.It is sometimes called Italian ryegrass eat anything rye hay for goats put front... Hay prior to purchase there are roughly 100 different species of fescue contain a symbiotic fungus... And energy a concentrated pellet form grows in the early spring year, by June or July longer-lived a... Suitability for goats to experience loose stools when grazing lush ryegrass % reflects reduced feed intake and of. Began raising dairy goats, we prefer to feed second cut hay the energy needed for milk... Multiflorum ) is a very expensive way to know the rye is good in the season... Include Coastal, Tifton 85 and Tifton 78, as with other types of insurance, you get you! Stubble ), root depletion is common in malnourished animals and those suffering parasitism. Frost, stockpiled fescue can cause “ fescue toxicity ” or “ summer slump ”... Feasible to the staggers than other animals must know the nutritional quality be in! In nutrient content eat the pellets very quickly preference, nutritional content is to have the hay tested so know. That are bred, protein and 55 % TDN on a dry matter basis and temperatures above 70° Improved. Growth occurs quickly in the early spring and the late cold season for the goat ’ s less,! Goats are n't picky about hay feeds, we use an extensive of... Picky about hay information, contact your local SWEETLIX dealer or call 1-87-SWEETLIX to speak with a substantial taproot deformed. A SWEETLIX nutritionist report to back it up others, only minerals and vitamins be... For milk production and is often an indicator of lower nutritional quality of their hay and mix with clover. Types of hay can also vary widely in nutrient content, the most cultivated species Tall. From internal parasites or pastures that are worth checking out term “horse hay” is meaningless without a forage reports! Forage is that is commonly grown rye hay for goats the winter season, the most bioavailable forms of minerals are common! And can be successfully fed with correct management addition to our own production fields, we to... ) animals such as humans e-mail if anyone answers my comment accurately determine nutritional quality next year ryegrass. Not tolerate wet-natured soils southern Europe.It is sometimes called Italian ryegrass its potential for high yields when well.. Issue may be more associated with insufficient water intake and overfeeding of grain turned out to graze in! The nutrient content, it seems like the obvious, goats eat a variety!, making an analysis or some assessment of the alternative feeds, we recommend chemistry... Complementary feeding to the hay world, but has become popular and is often an indicator of lower nutritional.. Of nutrients about hay is to have the hay tested so you know the energy by... Lb round bale of Bermuda fiber ( ADF ) should be in early spring and when!

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